ELECTROMERIC EFFECT EBOOK DOWNLOAD

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hybridisation affects the electronegativity of carbon. The greater the s character of electromeric effect or polarisability effect. In the following sections we will. conjugation. Resonance Mesomeric effect. Inductomeric effect. Electromeric effect . Mesomeric effects are generally stronger than inductive effects. A +M group. Positive Inductive effect: (+I effect, Electron Reason: Acidic strength decreases as +I effect of the alkyl Electromeric effect is defined as the complete.


Electromeric Effect Ebook Download

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General Organic And Biological Chemistry" eBooks in PDF, Sm Funds Gen Organc . Inductive Effect, Electromeric Effect, Resonance Effects fundamentals . PDF | This book is exclusively designed for the first-year engineering Mesomeric or Resonance Effect Hyperconjugative Effect: Baker–Nathan Effect Electronic factors that influence organic reactions include the inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance effects, and hyperconjugation. These electronic.

Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valence. Unit 5: Redox Reactions Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, Balancing redox reactions, in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number. Unit 6: Chemical Equilibrium Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium, Le Chatelier's principle.

Ionic equilibrium: Ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid strength, concept of pH. Hydrolysis of salts elementary idea. Buffer solutions, solubility product common ion effect with illustrative examples. Handerson equation. Unit 7 : Surface Chemistry Adsorption — physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids; catalysis : homogenous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state : distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; Lyophilic, Lyophobic, multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsion — types of emulsions.

Elementary idea of nanomaterials. Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules qualitative idea only , hydrogen bond.

Unit 9 : Hydrogen Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydrides-ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water.

Electromeric Effect

Hydrogen peroxide- preparation, properties and structure; hydrogen as a fuel. Uses of hydrogen peroxide Unit s-Block Elements Alkali and Alkaline earth metals Group 1 and Group 2 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii , trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses.

Preparation and properties of some important compounds: Sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium. Calcium oxide and calcium carbonate CaO CaCO3 and industrial uses of lime and limestone, biological importance of Magnesium and Calcium. Variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group.

Boron-physical and chemical properties, some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium; uses, reactions with acids and alkalies.

Group 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behavior of first element. Carbon — catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some important Compounds; oxides.

Important compounds of silicon and their uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites and structure of silicates Unit Basic Principles and Techniques in Organic Chemistry General introduction, methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis, Classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Melting point and boiling point. Resolution of vectors.

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Scalar and vector products, uniform circular motion and its applications projectile motion. Conservation of linear momentum and its applications, rocket propulsion, friction laws of friction Work, Energy and Power : Concept of work, energy and power. Energy kinetic and potential.

Conservation of energy and its applications, Elastic collisions in one and two dimensions. Different forms of energy. Rotational Motion and Moment of Inertia : Centre of mass of a two-particle system. Centre of mass of a rigid body, general motion of a rigid body, nature of rotational motion, torque, angular momentum, its conservation and applications.

Moment of Inertia, parallel and perpendicular axes theorem, expression of moment of inertia for ring, disc and sphere. Gravitation : Acceleration due to gravity, one and two-dimensional motion under gravity.

Universal law of gravitation, variation in the acceleration due to gravity of the earth. Properties of Matter : Inter-atomic and Inter-molecular forces, states of matter. B Liquids : Cohesion and adhesion. Surface energy and surface tension. Oscillations : Periodic motion, simple harmonic motion and its equation of motion, energy in S. Waves : Wave motion, speed of a wave, longitudinal and transverse waves, superposition of waves, progressive and standing waves, free and forced Oscillations, resonance, vibration of strings and air-columns, beats, Doppler effect.

Heat and Thermodynamics : Thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases and their specific heats, Relationship between Cp and Cv for gases, first law of thermodynamics, thermodynamic processes. Second law of thermodynamics, Carnot cycle, efficiency of heat engines. Transference of Heat : Modes of transference of heat. Thermal conductivity. Electric potential, potential due to a point charge. Conductors and insulators, distribution of charge on conductors.

Wheatstone Bridge with their applications and potentiometer with their applications. Magnetic Effects of Currents : Oersted's experiment, Biot-Savert's law magnetic field due to a current element , magnetic field due to a straight wire, circular loop and solenoid, force on a moving charge in a uniform magnetic field Lorentz force , forces and torques on currents in a magnetic field, force between two current carrying wires, moving coil galvanometer, ammeter and voltmeter.

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Magnetostatics : Bar magnet, magnetic field, lines of force, torque on a bar magnet in a magnetic field, earth's magnetic field, tangent galvanometer, vibration magnetometer, para, dia and ferro-magnetism, magnetic induction, magnetic susceptibility. Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents : Induced e. Transformer, simple motor, and A. Ray Optics : Sources of light, luminous intensity, luminous flux, illuminance and photometry elementary idea.

Reflection and refraction of light at plane and curved surfaces, total internal reflection, optical fibre, deviation and dispersion of light by a prism; Lens formula, magnification and resloving power; microscope and telescope. Wave Optics : Wave nature of light; Interference Young's double slit experiment. Diffraction due to a single slit. Elementary idea of polarization, Doppler effect of light. Electromagnetic waves : Electromagnetic oscillations.

Electromagnetic wave spectrum from gamma to radio waves - their use and propagation, properties of the atmosphere w.

Atoms, Molecules and Nuclei : Rutherford model of the atom, Bohr's model, energy quantizations, hydrogen spectrum, Atomic masses, size of the nucleus; Radioactivity; rays and their properties - alpha, beta and gamma decay; half life and mean life of radio-active nuclei, Binding energy, mass energy relationship, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. Solids and Semi-Conductor Devices : Energy bands in solids, conductors, insulators and semi-conductors, PN junction, diodes, diode as rectifier, junction transistor, transistor as an amplifier.

Chemical classification of matter mixtures, compounds and elements, and purification , Law of chemcial combination and Daiton's Atomic theory, Atomic Mass mole concept, determination of chemical formulae. Chemical equation balancing of chemical equation and calculations using chemical equations.

States of Matter : Gaseous state measurable properties of gases, Boyle's Law, Charle's Law and absolute scale of temperature, Avogadro's hypothesis, ideal gas equation, Dalton's law of partial pressure. Kinetic molecular theory of gases the microscopic model of gas, deviation from ideal behaviour.

The solid state classification of solids, X-ray studies of crystal lattices and unit cells, packing of constituent particles in crystals. Liquid state Properties of liquids, Vapour pressure, Surface tension, Viscosity.

Atomic Structures : Constituents of the atom Discovery of electron, Rutherford model of the atom. Electronic structure of atoms nature of light and electromagnetic waves, atomic spectra. Bohr's model of Hydrogen atom.

Quantum mechanical model of the atom, electronic configurations of atoms, Aufbau principle. Dual nature of matter and radiation. Shapes of orbitals. Solutions : Types of solutions, Vapour-pressure of solutions and Raoult's law. Colligative properties, Non-ideal solutions and abnormal molecular masses.

Mole concept-stoichemistry, volumetric analysis-concentration unit. Chemical Energetics and Thermodynamics : Energy changes during a chemical reaction, Internal energy and Enthalpy Internal energy, Enthalpy, Enthalpy changes, Origin of Enthalpy change in a reaction, Hess's Law of constant heat summation, numericals based on these concepts.

Heats of reactions heat of neutralization, heat of combustion, heat of fusion and vaporization. Sources of energy conservation of energy sources and identification of alternative sources, pollution associated with consumption of fuels. The sun as the primary source. First law of thermodynamics; Relation between Internal energy and Enthalpy, application of first law of thermodynamics. Second law of thermodynamics : Entropy, Gibbs energy, Spontaneity of a chemical reaction, Gibbs energy change and chemical equilibrium, Gibbs energy available for useful work.

Chemical Equilibrium : Equilibria involving physical changes solid-liquid, liquid-gas equilibrium involving dissolution of solid in liquids, gases in liquids, general characteristics of equilibrium involving physical processes Equilibria involving chemical systems the law of chemical equilibrium, the magnitude of the equilibrium constant, numerical problems.

Effect of changing conditions of systems at equilibrium change of concentration, change of temperature, effect of catalyst-Le Chateliar's principle. Equilibria involving ions ionization of electrolytes, weak and strong electrolytes, acid-base equilibrium, various concepts of acids and bases, ionization of water, pH, solubility product, numericals based on these concepts.

Redox Reactions and Electrochemistry : Oxidation and reduction as an electron transfer process. Redox reactions in aqueous solutions-electrochemical cells. EMF of a galvanic cell.

Dependence of EMF on concentration and temperature nearest equation and numerical problems based on it. Electrolysis, Oxidation numbers rules for assigning oxidation number, redox reactions in terms of oxidation number and nomenclature. Balancing of oxidation-reduction equations. Electrolytic conduction.

Electrode potential and products of electrolysis, Fuel cells, corrosion and its prevention. Rates of Chemical Reactions and Chemical Kinetics : Rate of reaction, Instantaneous rate of reaction and order of reaction. Factors affecting rates of reactions factors affecting rate of collisions encountered between the reactant molecules, effect of temperature on the reaction rate, concept of activation energy, catalysis.

Effect of light on rates of reactions. Elementary reactions as steps to more complex reactions.

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How fast are chemical reactions? Rate law expression. Order of a reaction with suitable examples. Units of rates and specific rate constants. Order of reaction and effect of concentration study will be confined to first order only. Temperature dependence of rate constant Fast reactions only elementary idea. Mechanism of reaction only elementary idea. Photochemical reactions. Periodic trends in properties ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, atomic radii, valence, periodicity in properties of compounds.

Quantum theory of the covalent bond Hydrogen and some simple molecules, carbon compounds. Hybridization, Boron and Beryllium compounds. Coordinate covalent bond lonic bond as an extreme case of polar covalent bond, ionic character of molecules and polar molecules.

Bonding in solid state lonic, moelcular and covalent solids, metals. Hydrogen bond, Resonance. Molecules: Molecular orbital. Hybridisation involving s, p and d orbitals including shapes of simple organic molecules , Dipole moment and structure of molecules. Chemistry of Non-metals-I Hydrogen unique position in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, properties, reactions and uses , Hydrides molecular, soline and interstitial Oxygen occurrence, preparation, properties and reactions, uses , simple oxides; ozone Water and hydrogen peroxide, structure of water molecule and its aggregates, physical and chemical properties of water, hard and soft water, water softening, hydrogen peroxide preparation, properties, structure and uses.

Nitrogen Preparation, properties, uses, compounds of Nitrogen Ammonia, Oxides of Nitrogen, Nitric Acid preparation, properties and uses. Chemistry of Non-metals-II Boron occurrence, isolation, physical and chemical properties, borax and boric acid, uses of boron and its compounds. Carbon, inorganic compounds of carbon oxides, halides, carbides, elemental carbon. Silicon occurrence, preparation and properties, oxides and oxyacids of phosphorus, chemical fertililzers. Sulphur occurrence and extraction, properties and reactions, oxides, Sulphuric acid preparation, properties and uses, sodium thiosulphate.

Halogens occurrence, preparation, properties, hydrogen halides, uses of halogens. Noble gases discovery, occurrence and isolation, physical properties, chemistry of noble gases and their uses. Chemistry of lighter Metals Sodium and Potassium occurrence and extraction, properties and uses. Magnesium and calcium occurrence and extraction, properties and uses. Aluminium occurrence, extraction, properties and uses, compounds AlCl3, alums.

Biological role of Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium and Calcium. Chemistry of heavier Metals Iron Occurrence and extraction, compounds of iron, oxides, halides, sulphides, sulphate, alloy and steel. Copper and silver occurrence and extraction, properties and uses, compounds sulphides, halides and sulphates, photography. Zinc and Mercury occurrence and extraction, properties and uses, compounds -oxides, halides; sulphides and sulphates Tin and Lead occurrence and extraction, properties and uses, compounds oxides, sulphides, halides.

Chemistry of Representative Elements Periodic properties - Trends in groups and periods a Oxides-nature b Halides-melting points c Carbonates and sulphates-solubility.

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The chemistry of s and p block elements, electronic configuration, general characteristic properties and oxidation states of the following:- Group 1 elements - Alkali metals Group 2 elements - Alkaline earth metals Group 13 elements - Boron family Group 14 elements - Carbon family Group 15 elements - Nitrogen family Group 16 elements - Oxygen family Group 17 elements - Halogen family Group 18 elements - Noble gases and Hydrogen Transition Metals including Lanthanides Electronic configuration: General characteristic properties.

States of transition metals. First row transition metals and general properties of their compounds - oxides, halides and sulphides. General properties of second and third row transition elements Groupwise discussion.

Preparation, properties and uses of Potassium dichromate, Potassium permanganate. Inner Transition Elements General discussion with special reference to oxidation states and earmthanide contraction. Coordination Chemistry and Organs Metallics Coordination compounds, Nomenclature : Isomerism in coordination compounds; Bonding in coordination compounds, Werner's coordination theory. Applications of coordination compounds.

Nuclear Chemistry Nature of radiation from radioactive substances; Nuclear reactions; Radioactive disintegration series; Artificial transmutation of elements; Nuclear fission and Nuclear fusion; isotopes and their applications: Radio carbon-dating. Purification and Characterisation of Organic Compounds Purification crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction, chromatography. Qualitative analysis, detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens.

Quantitative analysis estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus basic principles only Determination of molecular mass Silver salt method, cholroplatinate salt method Calculation of empirical formula and molecular formula. Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis, modern methods of structure elucidation. Tetravalency of Carbon. Homologous series. Isomerism Structural and stereoisomerism geometrical and optical.

Chirality Isomerism in Compounds having one and two chiral Centres. Covalent bond fission Homolytic and Heterolytic : free radicals carbocations and carbanions. Stability of Carbocations and free-radicals. Electrophiles and Nucleophiles. Electron displacement in a covalent bond inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance Common types of organic reactions Substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement reactions. Illustrations with examples.

Hydrocarbons Classification. Sources of hydrocarbons: Alkanes - General methods of preparation from unsatmated hydrocarbons, alkylhalides, aldehydes, ketones and carburoxylic acids. Physical properties and reactions Substitution, oxidation and miscellaneous. Conformations of alkanes ethane, popane butane and cyclohexane, sawhorse and Newman projections mechanism of halogaration of alkanes. Acidic character of alkynes.

Polymerisation of alkenes. Aromatic hydrocarbons - Benzene and its homologues, Isomerism, Chemical reactions of bonzene. Structure of bonzene, resonance. Directive influence of substituents. Petroleum - HydroCarbons from Petroleum, Cracking and reforming, quality of gasoline Octane number, gasoline additives. Organic Compounds Containing Halogens Methods of preparation, physical properties and reactions. Preparation, properties and uses of Chloroform and Iodoform, Organic compounds containing Oxygen General methods of preparation, correlation of physical properties with their structures, chemical properties and uses of Alchols, polyhydric alcohols, Ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivatives, Phenol, Benzaldehyde and Benzoic acid their important methods of preparation and reactions.

Acidity of carboxylic acids and phenol effect of substituents on the acidity of carboxylic acids. Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen Cyanides, isocyanides, nitrocompounds and amines Nomenclature and classification of amines, cyanides, isocyanides, nitrocompounds and their methods of preparation; correlation of their physical properties with structure, chemical reactions and uses Basicity of amines Synthetic and Natural Polymers Classification of Polymers, natural and synthetic polymers with stress on their general methods of preparation and important uses of the following: Teflon, PVC, Polystyrene, Nylon, terylene Environmental pollution - pollutants - services - check and alternatives.

Proteins and Enzymes - Structure of Proteins, Role of enzymes. Chemistry in Action Dyes, Chemicals and medicines antipyretic, analgesic, and tranquilisers , Rocket propellants.

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